Indian Space and Research Organization
This article is providing information about all satellites launched by ISRO and its space programs, Launch Vehicles, Satellites info and its use in space. Before start let’s have some briefs of ISRO.
What is ISRO?
ISRO is known as the Indian Space and Research Organization authorized under the Indian Government.
Indian Government had decided to dig in space and set up INCOSPAR (Indian National Committee for Space Research) in 1962 under the supervision of Dr. Vikram Sarabhai. INCOSPAR developed the first Indian launching station “Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station” (TERLS) at Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
On 15, August 1969 after eight years of INCOSPAR its stopped and New Space Agency outcome as the name of ISRO by Dr. Vikram Sarabhai at Bengaluru, Karnataka.
What is the work of ISRO?
ISRO works for explore to space. They are developing technology of space launch vehicles, new satellites which orbit Earth, Moon, Mars and providing new unknown information which is helpful to a human being.
There are 5 different departments under which ISRO operations divided.
- Vikram Sarabhai Space Center (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram
- ISRO Satellite Center (ISC), Bengaluru
- Mr. Harikota Range (SHAR), Mr. Harikota
- Space Investment Center (SAC), Ahmedabad
- Physical Investigation Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad
Launching Sites of ISRO in India
Launching Station is a place from where launch space mission using space vehicles also can say Rocket.
There are main 2 sites for Launch programs.
|Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station||Thiruvananthapuram||This site is used for a Sounding Rocket also named Research Rockets|
|Satish Dhawan Space Centre||Sriharikota||Sriharikota site is the main launch station of India. All of the major satellite launch programs held from here|
Use of Space Vehicle and its work
Specifically, launch vehicles are one type of transport utility using it Satellite can be set up on the Earth orbit.
There are various types of Rockets developed by ISRO. Every rocket developed for a separate purpose. It differentiates using its payloads, traveling distance.
There are main 4 parts in every space rocket.
- Nose Cone
- Nose Cone contains Payload system and Guidance System
- Payload System is a Scientific Equipment, Satellite, or Cargo (In specific Rockets which use for ISS – International Space Station).
- Guidance System means Computers, Communication Equipment, Radars, etc. using control and guide rocket while flight mode.
- Nose Cone contains Payload system and Guidance System
- Rocket Body
- Rocket Body is an outer body of vehicle utilities. Aluminum, Titanium, Nickel Alloy, etc. can be used for body build up because it needs to survive in high hitting atmosphere while flight.
- Fins are used at the bottom which can help to stabilize the rocket during its flight.
- The engine is the main part of every rocket. Boost Whole Rocket to Space Engine has to play a major role. The engine creates maximum thrust to push the rocket into the space using the fuel.
What is Satellite? Definition of Satellite
A Device or Technology which can be used for an orbit the Earth, Moon, Mars, Saturn for different kind of purposes like which Communication Satellite, Remote Sensing Satellite, Navigation Satellite, Geocentric Orbit type Satellites – LEO, MEO, HEO, Global Positioning System (GPS), Geostationary Satellites (GEOs), Drone Satellite, Ground Satellite.
Since First Satellite launched SputnikI (Russia) on October 4, 1957, approx 8378 total Satellites launched till 2020.
Here is the list of all major countries satellites launched till 2020.
How many artificial satellites are launched by India since 1975?
There are around 120 artificial satellites launched since 1975 to till today by ISRO.
As an Indian, we are proud of ISRO because of its abnormal achievements in space.
We have an example of the success rate of PSLV with 95% in the world and ISRO provides commercial launch also for other countries at the cheapest price in the world.
|Purpose||Aryabhata was developed and launched for Scientific/ Experimental purpose to check the ability of India.|
|Purpose||First Experimental Remote Sensing, VHF Band communication-based satellite|
|Purpose||RTP launched using first Indian Rocket SLV-3E1 and it was partially succeeded as per ISRO|
|Purpose||Rohini-1B was a spin-stabilized experimental satellite made of Aluminium Alloy and its orbit life of 9 months.
SLV-3E2 is the first Indian Rocket covert Indian scientist’s efforts in success.
|Purpose||RS-D1 was Earth Observation Satellite use for Landmark Tracker (remote sensing) and VHF Band Communication.|
|Purpose||The Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) was launched by the European Union Agency’s Launch vehicle.
Apple was the first communication satellite that uses VHF and C-band transponders.
|Purpose||Bhaskara-II also an experimental satellite use 2 band television camera system to study Ocean- surface using SAMIR (Satellite Microwave Radiometer).|
|Purpose||INSAT-1A was a communication version satellite launched using Delta Rocket which was a very successful Rocket family and its success rate around 95%. This was the only work for Months.|
|Purpose||This RS-D2 was the Rohini Family satellite launched using SLV-3 indigenous rocket for an experimental watch to check the capability of Indian Rocket. RS-D2 was the VHF band held Smart Sensor and L-band beacon technology which sent 5000 pictures.|
|Purpose||Another Communication had given service for 7 years and was launched using American STS-8|
|Purpose||Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle ASLV-D1’s first development launch was unfortunately unsuccessful. Didn’t achieved Orbit.|
|Purpose||IRS-1A was the first Indian satellite set in a polar sun-synchronous orbit with a payload of Three solid-state Push Broom Cameras: LISS-1(72.5-meter resolution), LISS-2A and LISS-2B (36.25-meter resolution). Communication facilities of S-band, X-band and VHF(commanding only).|
|Purpose||This Satellite of SROSS family with S-band and VHF Communication facilities and payload of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) payload and Mono Payload Ocular Electro-Optic Stereo Scanner (MEOSS) built by DLR, Germany but it’s didn’t reached to orbit.|
|Purpose||Third Generation satellite technology makeover and give service for 1.3 years only because 6 C-band and 2 S-band transponders stopped to work because of power system failure.|
|Purpose||INSAT-1D is fourth Insat series multipurpose Satellite|
|Purpose||The advanced version of IRS-1A, launched with Three solid-state Push Broom Cameras LlSS-1(72.5-meter resolution), LlSS-2A and LlSS-2B (36.25-meter resolution).S-band, X-band and VHF (commanding only) Communication Facilities.|
|Purpose||First successful flight by Indian Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV) and orbited SROSS-C with Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) experiment & Retarding Potential Analyser (RPA) experiment payloads.|
|Purpose||INSAT-2A was the first multipurpose satellite successfully built and orbit with 12 C-band (for FSS),6 ext. C-band (for FSS),2 S-band (for BSS),1Data relay, 1 transponder for research and rescue, HD Radiometer (VHRR) for meteorological observation with 2 km resolution in the visible and 8 km resolution in the IR band payloads.|
|Purpose||Second Multipurose Inset family 2B was launched after 1 year of its successor with HD radiometer (VHRR), 12C-band (for FSS), 6 ext. C-band (for FSS), 2S-band (for BSS) payloads.|
|Purpose||This launch did not take place because of the technical problems of PSLV.|
|Purpose||Experimental launch by ASLV and Successfully orbited.|
|Purpose||Here is a milestone of ISRO for PSLV. This is the second flight of PSLV and successfully orbited IRS-P2.|
|Purpose||INSAT family used for Communication|
|Purpose||PAN for less than 6-meter resolution, LlSS-3 around 23.6-meter resolution and WiFS up to a 189-meter resolution|
|Purpose||920 kg. IRS-P3 was a remote sensing satellite for identifying natural resources.|
Launch Successfully but stop responding after 2 months
|Purpose||This was accomplished perfectly but we miss it because of power supply problems|
|Purpose||IRS-1D was just replaced IRS-1C and retired in January 2010 after 12 years and 3 months.|
|Purpose||This was orbited between ASIA and AUSTRALIA provides Communication facilities.|
SHAR Centre, Sriharikota, India
|Purpose||First Ocean Application.|
Kourou (CSG), French Guyana
|Purpose||Business and Mobile Communication|
|Purpose||The most ambitious series of Indian satellite histories took place for improving radio broadcast, internet facilities. The Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) designed to achieve GTO orbit for more than 1.5 tons of payloads.|
|Purpose||The Technology Experiment Satellite (TES) was an experimental task for remote sensing purposes.|
|Purpose||New Multipurpose Inset series orbited for improving Communication, Meteorology & broadcasting.|
|Purpose||In respect of Dr. Kalpana Chawla ISRO rename METSAT to KALPANA-1 for Weather, communication satellite.|
|Purpose||A very heavyweight of 2950kg. with VHRR, CCD, DRT Meteorological payloads.|
|Purpose||Once again after the success of the first flight of GSLV in 2000kg. (2 Ton) class, another mission with 1800kg. of payloads as TRDM, SCM, SOXS, and CRABEX.|
|Purpose||Inset 3E carries C-band communication transponders.|
|Purpose||IRS-P6 was the most advance version of remote sensing satellite with AWiFS-A/B, Liss-3/4|
|Purpose||EDUSAT is an Education purpose from basic to Higher.|
|Purpose||A Tiny Satellite with 2 transponders – one was developer by Indian Amateurs and Seconds by Dutch Amateurs with a higher institute of the Netherlands students.|
How to launch a satellite?
Let’s see, here a demonstration of the process for a satellite launch to orbit or space.
What is Earth Orbit?
In simple words, An orbit is a place where satellites are traveling around the earth.
For Satellites majorly three orbits are exist.
- LOW EARTH ORBIT (LEO)
- Up to 2000 kilometers (100 to 1250 Miles) from earth surface considered as an LEO.
- The Orbit speed of the satellite is 7.8 km/S.
- International Space Station (ISS) is orbited in LEO.
- MEDIUM EARTH ORBIT (MEO)
- From 2000 Kilometers to 35000 Kilometers (around 22000 Miles) from sea level known as MEO. MEO also called intermediate circular orbit (ICO).
- Most of Artificial Satellites orbited here. All general-purpose service satellites like, Communication, Education, Navigation, etc. A well-known example is GPS (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM).
- The orbit time of the satellite is 12 Hours. It means after 12 hours satellite finish 1 round of earth.
- The orbit speed is approx 15000 km/S.
- GEOSYNCHRONOUS EARTH ORBIT (GEO)
- Above Medium Earth Orbit is known as GEO. Geosynchronous Earth Orbit starts from 35000 kilometers to around 45000 kilometers (around 28500 Miles) from sea level.
- GEO is a Geocentric Orbit.
- The orbit speed is approx 11000 km/S and orbital time approx 24 hours.